Magnification Series from JEOL JEM 3200FS Recorded
Using the Gatan UltraScan 4000 CCD Camera

The images shown here are 4k x 4k images recorded from a replica diffraction grating calibration grid (often referred to as a waffle grid with latex spheres) using the UltraScan 4000. The images start at the highest available TEM magnification on the JEOL JEM 3200FS and step down from there. Although an image was recorded at every available magnification, only those that reveal diffraction from the islands of (poly)crystalline gold are shown here.

It can be seen from the last images on this page that the image recorded at a nominal magnification of 120,000x (with a pixel size of 0.99 Å) clearly shows the 2.35 Å diffraction from the gold lattice (where the Nyquist limit is 1.98 Å). Even the image recorded at the next lower mag (100,000x, with a pixel size of 1.2 Å and a Nyquist limit in the x- or y-direction of 2.4 Å) clearly shows the 2.35 Å diffraction in the "diagonal direction" of the Fourier transform (click here for an explanation for how this is possible). Both these observations indicate that there is considerable signal in these images near the Nyquist limit, even though the signal is considerably weaker than it should be (follow the strength of the 2.35 Å ring as the magnification drops and the position of the ring moves closer to the edge of the FFT).

Note: The images and FFTs shown below have been cropped by ~2% from their highly binned display in DigitalMicrograph. The most significant impact this has is on the FFTs, where instead of the edge of the displayed FFT corresponding to the absolute edge of the FFT, a bit more of the FFT does actually exist. The entire FFT from the last image on this page is available here.

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 2M (~2.97M at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 2MFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 1.5M (~2.23M at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 1.5MFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 1.2M (~1.78M at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 1.2MFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 1M (~1.48M at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 1MFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 800k (~1.19M at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 800kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 600k (~752k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 600kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 500k (~627k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 500kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 400k (~502k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 400kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 300k (~377k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 300kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 250k (~314k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 250kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 200k (~251k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 200kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 150k (~189k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 150kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 120k (~150k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 120kFFT of image to left

Image recorded at nominal magnification of 100k (~126k at the plane of the CCD) and its FFT:

image at nominal magnification of 100kFFT of image to left

Note: With the exception of the final FFT, no attempt was made to scale the display in order to reveal the information shown here. It was necessary to scale this final FFT carefully to show the relatively weak "powder pattern" diffraction ring at 2.35 Å.

Note2: The magnifications reported here for the CCD plane are based on the DigitalMicrograph calibration when this camera was installed and are somewhat inconsistent. After these mags have been re-calibrated using the information in the FFT's, this page will be redone.